TCP/IP is short for transmission control protocol/Internet protocol, TCP/IP is a set of rules (protocols) governing communications among all computers on the Internet. More specifically, TCP/IP dictates how information should be packaged (turned into bundles of information called packets), sent, and received, as well as how to get to its destination.


As the name implies, TCP/IP is a combination of two separate protocols: TCP (transmission control protocol) and IP (Internet protocol). The Internet Protocol standard dictates the logistics of packets sent out over networks; it tells packets where to go and how to get there. IP allows any computer on the Internet to forward a packet to another computer that's one or more intervals closer to the packet's recipient. You can think of it like workers in a line passing boulders from a quarry to a mining cart.


The Transmission Control Protocol is responsible for ensuring the reliable transmission of data across Internet-connected networks. TCP checks packets for errors and submits requests for re-transmissions if any are found.

1.Three of the most common TCP/IP protocols

1.1 HTTP - Used between a web client and a web server, for non-secure data transmissions. A web client (i.e., Internet browser on a computer) sends a request to a web server to view a web page. The web server receives that request and sends the web page information back to the web client.


1.2 HTTPS - Used between a web client and a web server, for secure data transmissions. Often used for sending credit card transaction data or private data from a web client (i.e., Internet browser on a computer) to a web server.


1.3 FTP - Used between two or more computers. One computer sends data to or receives data from another computer directly.


2.Domain names and TCP/IP addresses


The TCP/IP address for a website or web server is not easy to remember. To remedy this issue, a domain name is used instead. For example, 216.58.216.164 is one of the IP address for Google and google.com is the domain name. Using this method, instead of a set of numbers, makes it much easier for users to remember Computer Hope's web address.


3. The different layers of TCP/IP


3.1 Network Access Layer - This layer is concerned with building packets.


3.2 Internet Layer - This layer uses IP (Internet Protocol) to describe how packets are to be delivered.


3.3 Transport Layer - This layer utilizes UDP (User Datagram Protocol) and TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) to ensure the proper transmission of data.


3.4 Application Layer - This layer deals with application network processes. These processes include FTP (File Transfer Protocol), HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol), and SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol).


4. TCP/IP Core Benefits:


4.1 One of the primary benefits of the TCP/IP protocol is a very high level of reliability, provided when transferring data. Even if a packet of information gets lost using one route, the protocol guarantees that it will reach its destination using another way.


4.2 A significant advantage of TCP/IP is that most protocols of the suite are stateless, which means that information about session or each communication partner doesn’t need to be retained by the server, thus free network paths can be continuously used by everyone.


It’s worth noting that there are a number of other networking protocols, aimed at providing special services within TCP/IP protocol set. They include User Datagram Protocol (UDP), Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP), the Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP), the Exterior Gateway Protocol (EGP) and more.


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